America Invents Act's central provisions went into effect on March 16, 2013.
When a product that embodies a patent is sold, the patent is exhausted with respect to that product, and the patent owner has no rights against the buyer of the product. This was true of article claims.
Even though Patent Cooperation Treaty makes it easier, the patent rights have to be secured in each country. Having the patent right gives the right owner control over making, importing, selling, and using of the component that embodies the patent claim.
A patent is granted for new, useful, and non-obvious inventions. Courts tend to define terms for consistency. The traditional test for obviousness has been that there should be a teaching, motivation, or suggestion (TSM) for the invention to be obvious.